Río+20 official document: The future we want
We publish here the official document, in its final version that was worked and agreed by the delegations present at the Rio+20 Summit and that only the Heads of State could modify directly. As our correspondents in Brazil reported, it only remains the act of formalization of its approval during the official summit meeting.
**I. Our Common Vision**
1. We, the heads of State and Government and high level representatives, having met at
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 20-22 June 2012, with full participation of civil society, renew
our commitment to sustainable development, and to ensure the promotion of economically,
socially and environmentally sustainable future for our planet and for present and future
2. Eradicating poverty is the greatest global challenge facing the world today and an
indispensable requirement for sustainable development. In this regard we are committed to
free humanity from poverty and hunger as a matter of urgency.
3. We therefore acknowledge the need to further mainstream sustainable development at
all levels integrating economic, social and environmental aspects and recognizing their
interlinkages, so as to achieve sustainable development in all its dimensions.
4. We recognize that poverty eradication, changing unsustainable and promoting sustainable
patterns of consumption and production, and protecting and managing the natural resource
base of economic and social development are the overarching objectives of and essential
requirements for sustainable development. We also reaffirm the need to achieve sustainable
development by: promoting sustained, inclusive and equitable economic growth, creating
greater opportunities for all, reducing inequalities, raising basic standards of living; fostering
equitable social development and inclusion; and promoting integrated and sustainable
management of natural resources and ecosystems that supports inter alia economic, social and
human development while facilitating ecosystem conservation, regeneration and restoration
and resilience in the face of new and emerging challenges.
5. We reaffirm our commitment to making every effort to accelerate the achievement of the
internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs) by 2015.
6. We recognize that people are at the center of sustainable development and in this regard,
we strive for a world which is just, equitable and inclusive, and we commit to work together
to promote sustained and inclusive economic growth, social development, environmental
protection and thereby to benefit all.
7. We reaffirm that we continue to be guided by the purposes and principles of the Charter of
the United Nations, and with full respect for international law and its principles.
8. We also reaffirm the importance of freedom, peace and security, respect for all human
rights, including the right to development and the right to an adequate standard of living,
including the right to food, the rule of law, gender equality and women’s empowerment and
the overall commitment to just and democratic societies for development.
9. We reaffirm the importance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as well as other
international instruments relating to human rights and international law. We emphasize the
responsibilities of all States, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations, to respect, protect and promote human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, without distinction of
any kind to race, colour, sex, language or religion, political or other opinion, national or social
origin, property, birth, disability or other status.
10. We acknowledge that democracy, good governance and the rule of law, at the national
and international levels, as well as an enabling environment are essential for sustainable
development, including sustained and inclusive economic growth, social development,
environmental protection and the eradication of poverty and hunger. We reaffirm that
to achieve our sustainable development goals. We need institutions at all levels that are
effective, transparent, accountable and democratic.
11. We reaffirm our commitment to strengthening international cooperation to address the
persistent challenges related to sustainable development for all, in particular in developing
countries. In this regard, we reaffirm the need to achieve economic stability and sustained
economic growth, promotion of social equity, and protection of the environment, while
enhancing gender equality and women’s empowerment, and equal opportunities for all, and
the protection, survival and development of children to their full potential, including through
12. We resolve to take urgent action to achieve sustainable development. We therefore renew
our commitment to sustainable development, assessing the progress to date and the remaining
gaps in the implementation of the outcomes of the major summits on sustainable development
and addressing new and emerging challenges. We express our determination to address the
themes of the Conference, namely a green economy in the context of sustainable development
and poverty eradication, and the institutional framework for sustainable development.
13. We recognize that people’s opportunities to influence their lives and future, participate in
decision making and voice their concerns are fundamental for sustainable development. We
underscore that sustainable development requires concrete and urgent action. It can only be
achieved with a broad alliance of people, governments, civil society and private sector, all
working together to secure the future we want for present and future generations.
**II. Renewing Political Commitment**
**A. Reaffirming Rio principles and past action plans**
14. We recall the Stockholm Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human
Environment adopted at Stockholm on 16 June 1972.
15. We reaffirm all the principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development,
including, inter alia, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, as set out in
Principle 7 of the Rio Declaration.
16. We reaffirm our commitment to fully implement the Rio Declaration on Environment and
Development, Agenda 21, the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21, the
Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg
Declaration on Sustainable Development and the Plan of Implementation) of the World
Summit on Sustainable Development, the Barbados Programme of Action and the Mauritius
Strategy for Implementation. We also reaffirm our commitment to the full implementation of the Istanbul Programme of Action for Least Developed Countries (IPOA), the Almaty
Programme of Action for Landlocked Developing Countries, the Political declaration on
Africa’s development needs, and the New Partnership for Africa’s Development. We recall
as well our commitments in the outcomes of all the major United Nations conferences and
summits in the economic, social and environmental fields, including the UN Millennium
Declaration and the 2005 World Summit outcome, the Monterrey Consensus and the Doha
Declaration on Financing for Development, the outcome document of the High-Level
Plenary Meeting of the UN General Assembly on the MDGs, the Programme of Action of
the International Conference on Population and Development, the Key Actions for Further
Implementation of the Programme of Action, and the Beijing Declaration and Platform for
17. We recognize the importance of the three Rio Conventions to advancing sustainable
development and in this regard we urge all Parties to fully implement their commitments
under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Convention to Combat
Desertification (UNCCD), in accordance with their respective principles and provisions,
as well as to take effective and concrete actions and measures at all levels, and to enhance
18. We are determined to reinvigorate political will and to raise the level of commitment by
the international community to move the sustainable development agenda forward, through
the achievement of the internationally agreed development goals including the Millennium
Development Goals. We further reaffirm our respective commitments to other relevant
internationally agreed goals in the economic, social and environmental fields since 1992. We
therefore resolve to take concrete measures that accelerate implementation of sustainable
**B. Advancing Integration, Implementation, and Coherence: Assessing the progress
to date and the remaining gaps in the implementation of the outcomes of the major
summits on sustainable development and addressing new and emerging challenges**
19. We recognize that the twenty years since the Earth Summit in 1992 have seen uneven
progress, including in sustainable development and poverty eradication. We emphasize
the need to make progress in implementing previous commitments. We also recognize the
need to accelerate progress in closing development gaps between developed and developing
countries, and to seize and create opportunities to achieve sustainable development through
economic growth and diversification, social development and environment protection. To
this end, we underscore the continued need for an enabling environment at the national
and international levels, as well as continued and strengthened international cooperation,
particularly in the areas of finance, debt, trade and technology transfer, as mutually agreed,
and innovation and entrepreneurship, capacity building, transparency and accountability. We
recognize the diversification of actors and stakeholders engaged in the pursuit of sustainable
development. In this context, we affirm the continued need for the full and effective
participation of all countries, in particular developing countries, in global decision making.
20. We acknowledge that since 1992 there have been areas of insufficient progress and
setbacks in the integration of the three dimensions of sustainable development, aggravated
by multiple financial, economic, food and energy crises, which have threatened the ability
of all countries, in particular developing countries, to achieve sustainable development. In this regard, it is critical that we do not backtrack from our commitment to the outcome of the
Earth Summit. We also recognize that one of the current major challenges for all countries,
particularly for developing countries, is the impact from the multiple crises affecting the
21. We are deeply concerned that one in five people on this planet, or over one billion people,
still live in extreme poverty, and that one in seven—or 14 percent—is undernourished, while
public health challenges including pandemics and epidemics remain omnipresent threats.
In this context, we note the ongoing discussions on human security in the United Nations
General Assembly. We acknowledge that with the world’s population projected to exceed
nine billion by 2050 with an estimated two thirds living in cities we need to increase our
efforts to achieve sustainable development and in particular, the eradication of poverty and
hunger and preventable diseases.
22. We recognize examples of progress in sustainable development at regional, national, sub-
national and local levels. We note that efforts to achieve sustainable development have been
reflected in regional, national and sub-national policies and plans, and that governments have
strengthened their commitment to sustainable development since the adoption of Agenda 21
through legislation and institutions, and the development and implementation of international,
regional and sub-regional agreements and commitments.
23. We reaffirm the importance of supporting developing countries in their efforts to
eradicate poverty and promote empowerment of the poor and people in vulnerable situations
including removing barriers to opportunity and enhancing productive capacity, developing
sustainable agriculture, and promoting full and productive employment and decent work for
all, complemented by effective social policies, including social protection floors, with a view
to achieving the internationally agreed development goals, including the MDGs.
24. We express deep concern about the continuing high levels of unemployment and
underemployment, particularly among young people, and note the need for sustainable
development strategies to proactively address youth employment at all levels. In this regard,
we recognize the need for a global strategy on youth and employment building on the work of
the International Labour Organization (ILO).
25. We acknowledge that climate change is a cross-cutting and persistent crisis and express
our concern that the scale and gravity of the negative impacts of climate change affect all
countries and undermine the ability of all countries, in particular, developing countries,
to achieve sustainable development and the MDGs and threaten the viability and survival
of nations. Therefore we underscore that combatting climate change requires urgent and
ambitious action, in accordance with the principles and provisions of the UNFCCC.
26. States are strongly urged to refrain from promulgating and applying any unilateral
economic, financial or trade measures not in accordance with international law and the
Charter of the United Nations that impede the full achievement of economic and social
development, particularly in developing countries.
27. We reiterate our commitment, expressed in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation
(JPOI), in the World Summit Outcome of 2005 and the MDGs Summit of 2010, to take
further effective measures and actions, in conformity with international law, to remove the
obstacles to the full realization of the right of self determination of peoples living under colonial and foreign occupation, which continue to adversely affect their economic and social
development as well as their environment and are incompatible with the dignity and worth of
the human person and must be combated and eliminated.
28. We also reaffirm that in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, this shall
not be construed as authorizing or encouraging any action against the territorial integrity or
political independence of any State.
29. We also resolve to take further effective measures and actions, in conformity with
international law, to remove obstacles and constraints, strengthen support and meet the special
needs of people living in areas affected by complex humanitarian emergencies and in areas
affected by terrorism.
30. We recognize that many people, especially the poor, depend directly on ecosystems for
their livelihoods, their economic, social and physical well-being, and their cultural heritage.
For this reason, it is essential to generate decent jobs and incomes that decrease disparities
in standards of living to better meet people’s needs and promote sustainable livelihoods and
practices and the sustainable use of natural resources and ecosystems.
31. We emphasize that sustainable development must be inclusive and people-centered,
benefiting and involving all people, including youth and children. We recognize that gender
equality and women’s empowerment are important for sustainable development and our
common future. We reaffirm our commitments to ensure women’s equal rights, access and
opportunities for participation and leadership in the economy, society and political decision
32. We recognize that each country faces specific challenges to achieve sustainable
development and we underscore the special challenges facing the most vulnerable countries
and in particular African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing
countries, and small island developing States (SIDS) as well as the specific challenges facing
the middle-income countries. Countries in situations of conflict also need special attention.
33. We reaffirm our commitment to take urgent and concrete action to address the
vulnerability of SIDS, including through the sustained implementation of the Mauritius
Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable
Development of Small Island Developing States and Barbados Programme of Action, and
underscore the urgency of finding additional solutions to the major challenges facing small
island developing States in a concerted manner so as to support them in sustaining momentum
realized in implementing the Barbados Programme of Action and Mauritius Strategy for
Implementation and achieving sustainable development.
34. We reaffirm that the Istanbul Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for
the Decade 2011-2020 outlines LDCs’ priorities for sustainable development and defines a
framework for renewed and strengthened global partnership to implement them. We commit
to assist LDCs with the implementation of the IPOA as well as their efforts to achieve
35. We recognize that more attention should be given to Africa and the implementation
of previously agreed commitments related to its development needs that were made at
major UN Summits and Conferences. We note that aid to Africa has increased in recent years. However, it still lags behind on commitments that were previously made. We
underscore the key priority for the international community of supporting Africa’s sustainable
development efforts. In this regard, we recommit to fully implement the internationally agreed
commitments related to Africa’s development needs, particularly those contained in the
United Nations Millennium Declaration, the Declaration on the New Partnership for Africa’s
Development, the Monterrey Consensus of the International Conference on Financing
for Development, the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation and the 2005 World Summit
Outcome as well as the 2008 Political Declaration on Africa’s development needs.
36. We recognize the serious constraints to achieve sustainable development in all its three
dimensions in landlocked developing countries. In this regard, we reaffirm our commitment
to address special development needs and the challenges faced by landlocked developing
countries through the full, timely and effective implementation of the Almaty Programme of
Action as contained in the Declaration on the mid-term review.
37. We recognize the progress made by middle-income countries in improving the well-being
of their people, as well as the specific development challenges they face in their efforts to
eradicate poverty, reduce inequalities, and achieve their development goals, including the
MDGs, and to achieve sustainable development in a comprehensive manner integrating the
economic, social and environmental dimensions. We reiterate that these efforts should be
adequately supported by the international community, through various forms, taking into
account the needs and the capacity to mobilize domestic resources of these countries.
38. We recognize the need for broader measures of progress to complement GDP in order to
better inform policy decisions, and in this regard, we request the UN Statistical Commission
in consultation with relevant UN System entities and other relevant organizations to launch a
programme of work in this area building on existing initiatives.
39. We recognize that the planet Earth and its ecosystems are our home and that Mother Earth
is a common expression in a number of countries and regions and we note that some countries
recognize the rights of nature in the context of the promotion of sustainable development.
We are convinced that in order to achieve a just balance among the economic, social and
environment needs of present and future generations, it is necessary to promote harmony with
40. We call for holistic and integrated approaches to sustainable development which will
guide humanity to live in harmony with nature and lead to efforts to restore the health and
integrity of the Earth’s ecosystem.
41. We acknowledge the natural and cultural diversity of the world and recognize that all
cultures and civilizations can contribute to sustainable development.
**C. Engaging major groups and other stakeholders**
42. We reaffirm the key role of all levels of government and legislative bodies in promoting
sustainable development. We further acknowledge efforts and progress made at the local and
sub-national levels, and recognize the important role that such authorities and communities
can play in implementing sustainable development, including by engaging citizens and
stakeholders, and providing them with relevant information, as appropriate, on the three
dimensions of sustainable development. We further acknowledge the importance of involving all relevant decision makers into planning and implementation of sustainable development
43. We underscore that broad public participation and access to information and judicial
and administrative proceedings are essential to the promotion of sustainable development.
Sustainable development requires the meaningful involvement and active participation of
regional, national and sub-national legislatures and judiciaries, and all Major Groups: women,
children and youth, indigenous peoples, non-governmental organizations, local authorities,
workers and trade unions, business and industry, the scientific and technological community,
and farmers, as well as other stakeholders, including local communities, volunteer groups
and foundations, migrants, families as well as older persons and persons with disabilities.
In this regard, we agree to work more closely with Major Groups and other stakeholders
and encourage their active participation, as appropriate, in processes that contribute to
decision making, planning and implementation of policies and programmes for sustainable
development at all levels.
44. We acknowledge the role of civil society and the importance of enabling all members of
civil society to be actively engaged in sustainable development. We recognize that improved
participation of civil society depends upon, inter alia, strengthening access to information,
building civil society capacity as well as an enabling environment. We recognize that
information and communication technology (ICT) is facilitating the flow of information
between governments and the public. In this regard, it is essential to work toward improved
access to ICT, especially broad-band network and services, and bridge the digital divide,
recognizing the contribution of international cooperation in this regard.
45. We underscore that women have a vital role to play in achieving sustainable development.
We recognize the leadership role of women and we resolve to promote gender equality and
women’s empowerment and to ensure their full and effective participation in sustainable
development policies, programmes and decision-making at all levels.
46. We acknowledge that the implementation of sustainable development will depend
on active engagement of both the public and private sectors. We recognize that the
active participation of the private sector can contribute to the achievement of sustainable
development, including through the important tool of public-private partnerships. We support
national regulatory and policy frameworks that enable business and industry to advance
sustainable development initiatives taking into account the importance of corporate social
responsibility. We call on the private sector to engage in responsible business practices, such
as those promoted by the UN Global Compact.
47. We acknowledge the importance of corporate sustainability reporting and encourage
companies, where appropriate, especially publicly listed and large companies, to consider
integrating sustainability information into their reporting cycle. We encourage industry,
interested governments as well as relevant stakeholders with the support of the UN system,
as appropriate, to develop models for best practice and facilitate action for the integration of
sustainability reporting, taking into account the experiences of already existing frameworks,
and paying particular attention to the needs of developing countries, including for capacity
48. We recognize the important contribution of the scientific and technological community
to sustainable development. We are committed to working with and fostering collaboration among academic, scientific and technological community, in particular in developing
countries, to close the technological gap between developing and developed countries,
strengthen the science-policy interface as well as to foster international research collaboration
on sustainable development.
49. We stress the importance of the participation of indigenous peoples in the achievement
of sustainable development. We also recognize the importance of the UN Declaration on the
Rights of Indigenous Peoples in the context of global, regional, national, and sub-national
implementation of sustainable development strategies.
50. We stress the importance of the active participation of young people in decision
making processes as the issues we are addressing have a deep impact on present and future
generations, and as the contribution of children and youth is vital to the achievement of
sustainable development. We also recognize the need to promote intergenerational dialogue
and solidarity by recognizing their views.
51. We stress the importance of the participation of workers and trade unions to the
promotion of sustainable development. As the representatives of working people, trade unions
are important partners in facilitating the achievement of sustainable development in particular
the social dimension. Information, education and training on sustainability at all levels,
including in the workplace, are key to strengthening workers’ and trade unions’ capacity to
support sustainable development.
52. We recognize that farmers, including small-scale farmers and fishers, pastoralists and
foresters, can make important contributions to sustainable development through production
activities that are environmentally sound, enhance food security and the livelihood of the
poor, and invigorate production and sustained economic growth.
53. We note the valuable contributions that non-governmental organizations could and do
make in promoting sustainable development through their well-established and diverse
experience, expertise and capacity, especially in the area of analysis, sharing of information
and knowledge, promotion of dialogue and support of implementation of sustainable
54. We recognize the central role of the United Nations in advancing the sustainable
development agenda. We acknowledge as well, in this regard, the contributions of other
relevant international organizations, including international financial institutions (IFIs)
and multilateral development banks and stress the importance of cooperation among them
and with the United Nations, within their respective mandates, recognizing their role in
mobilizing resources for sustainable development.
55. We commit ourselves to re-invigorating the global partnership for sustainable
development that we launched in Rio in 1992. We recognize the need to impart new
momentum to our cooperative pursuit of sustainable development, and commit to work
together with Major Groups and other stakeholders in addressing implementation gaps.
**III. Green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication**
56. We affirm that there are different approaches, visions, models and tools available to each country, in accordance with its national circumstances and priorities, to achieve sustainable
development in its three dimensions which is our overarching goal. In this regard, we
consider green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication as
one of the important tools available for achieving sustainable development and that it could
provide options for policy making but should not be a rigid set of rules. We emphasize that
it should contribute to eradicating poverty as well as sustained economic growth, enhancing
social inclusion, improving human welfare and creating opportunities for employment and
decent work for all, while maintaining the healthy functioning of the Earth’s ecosystems.
57. We affirm that policies for green economy in the context of sustainable development
and poverty eradication should be guided by and in accordance with all the Rio principles,
Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation and contribute towards achieving
relevant internationally agreed development goals including the MDGs.
58. We affirm that green economy policies in the context of sustainable development and
poverty eradication should:
(a) be consistent with international law;
(b) respect each country’s national sovereignty over their natural resources taking into
account its national circumstances, objectives, responsibilities, priorities and policy
space with regard to the three dimensions of sustainable development;
(c) be supported by an enabling environment and well-functioning institutions at all
levels with a leading role for governments and with the participation of all relevant
stakeholders, including civil society;
(d) promote sustained and inclusive economic growth, foster innovation and provide
opportunities, benefits and empowerment for all and respect of all human rights;
(e) take into account the needs of developing countries, particularly those in special
(f) strengthen international cooperation, including the provision of financial resources,
capacity building and technology transfer to developing countries;
(g) effectively avoid unwarranted conditionalities on ODA and finance;
(h) not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised
restriction on international trade, avoid unilateral actions to deal with environmental
challenges outside the jurisdiction of the importing country, and ensure that
environmental measures addressing trans-boundary or global environmental problems,
as far as possible, are based on an international consensus;
(i) contribute to closing technology gaps between developed and developing countries
and reduce the technological dependence of developing countries using all appropriate
(j) enhance the welfare of indigenous peoples and their communities, other local
and traditional communities, and ethnic minorities, recognizing and supporting their
identity, culture and interests and avoid endangering their cultural heritage, practices
and traditional knowledge, preserving and respecting non-market approaches that
contribute to the eradication of poverty;
(k) enhance the welfare of women, children, youth, persons with disabilities,
smallholder and subsistence farmers, fishers and those working in small and medium
enterprises, and improve the livelihoods and empowerment of the poor and vulnerable
groups in particular in developing countries;
(l) mobilize the full potential and ensure equal contribution of both women and men;
(m) promote productive activities in developing countries that contribute to the
eradication of poverty;
(n) address the concern about inequalities and promote social inclusion, including
social protection floors;
(o) promote sustainable consumption and production patterns; and
(p) continue efforts to strive for inclusive, equitable development approaches to
overcome poverty and inequality.
59. We view the implementation of green economy policies by countries that seek to apply
them for the transition towards sustainable development as a common undertaking, and we
recognize that each country can choose an appropriate approach in accordance with national
sustainable development plans, strategies and priorities.
60. We acknowledge that green economy in the context of sustainable development and
poverty eradication will enhance our ability to manage natural resources sustainably and with
lower negative environmental impacts, increase resource efficiency and reduce waste.
61. We recognize that urgent action on unsustainable patterns of production and consumption
where they occur remains fundamental in addressing environmental sustainability, and
promoting conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems, regeneration of
natural resources, and the promotion of sustained, inclusive and equitable global growth.
62. We encourage each country to consider the implementation of green economy policies in
the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, in a manner that endeavours
to drive sustained, inclusive and equitable economic growth and job creation, particularly for
women, youth and the poor. In this respect, we note the importance of ensuring that workers
are equipped with the necessary skills, including through education and capacity building, and
are provided with the necessary social and health protections. In this regard, we encourage
all stakeholders, including business and industry to contribute, as appropriate. We invite
governments to improve knowledge and statistical capacity on job trends, developments and
constraints and integrate relevant data into national statistics, with the support of relevant UN
agencies within their mandates.
63. We recognise the importance of the evaluation of the range of social, environmental
and economic factors and encourage, where national circumstances and conditions allow,
their integration into decision making. We acknowledge that it will be important to take into
account the opportunities and challenges, as well as the costs and benefits of green economy
policies in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, using the best
available scientific data and analysis. We acknowledge that a mix of measures, including
regulatory, voluntary and others applied at the national level and consistent with obligations
under international agreements, could promote green economy in the context of sustainable
development and poverty eradication. We reaffirm that social policies are vital to promoting
64. We acknowledge that involvement of all stakeholders and their partnerships, networking
and experience sharing at all levels could help countries to learn from one another in
identifying appropriate sustainable development policies, including green economy
policies. We note the positive experiences in some countries, including in developing
countries, in adopting green economy policies in the context of sustainable development and
poverty eradication through an inclusive approach and welcome the voluntary exchange of
experiences as well as capacity building in the different areas of sustainable development.
65. We recognize the power of communications technologies, including connection
technologies and innovative applications to promote knowledge exchange, technical
cooperation and capacity building for sustainable development. These technologies and
applications can build capacity and enable the sharing of experiences and knowledge in the
different areas of sustainable development in an open and transparent manner.
66. Recognizing the importance of linking financing, technology, capacity building and
national needs for sustainable development policies, including green economy in the context
of sustainable development and poverty eradication, we invite the UN System, in cooperation
with relevant donors and international organizations to coordinate and provide information
upon request on:
(a) matching interested countries with the partners best suited to provide requested
(b) toolboxes and/or best practices in applying policies on green economy in the
context of sustainable development and poverty eradication at all levels;
(c) models or good examples of policies of green economy in the context of
sustainable development and poverty eradication;
(d) methodologies for evaluation of policies of green economy in the context of
sustainable development and poverty eradication;
(e) existing and emerging platforms that contribute in this regard.
67. We underscore the importance of governments taking a leadership role in developing
policies and strategies through an inclusive and transparent process. We also take note of
the efforts of those countries, including developing countries, that have already initiated
processes to prepare national green economy strategies and policies in support of sustainable
68. We invite relevant stakeholders, including the UN Regional Commissions, UN
organizations and bodies, other relevant intergovernmental and regional organizations,
international financial institutions and major groups involved in sustainable development,
according to their respective mandates, to support developing countries upon request to
achieve sustainable development, including through, inter alia, green economy policies in the
context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, in particular in least developed
69. We also invite business and industry as appropriate and in accordance with national
legislation to contribute to sustainable development and to develop sustainability strategies
that integrate, inter alia, green economy policies.
70. We acknowledge the role of cooperatives and microenterprises in contributing to social
inclusion and poverty reduction in particular in developing countries.
71. We encourage existing and new partnerships, including public-private partnerships,
to mobilize public financing complemented by the private sector, taking into account the
interests of local and indigenous communities when appropriate. In this regard, governments
should support initiatives for sustainable development, including promoting the contribution
of the private sector to support green economy policies in the context of sustainable
development and poverty eradication.
72. We recognize the critical role of technology as well as the importance of promoting innovation, in particular in developing countries. We invite governments, as appropriate,
to create enabling frameworks that foster environmentally sound technology, research and
development, and innovation, including in support of green economy in the context of
sustainable development and poverty eradication.
73. We emphasize the importance of technology transfer to developing countries and recall
the provisions on technology transfer, finance, access to information, and intellectual property
rights as agreed in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, in particular its call to promote,
facilitate and finance, as appropriate, access to and the development, transfer and diffusion
of environmentally sound technologies and corresponding know-how, in particular to
developing countries, on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms,
as mutually agreed. We also take note of the further evolution of discussions and agreements
on these issues since the JPOI.
74. We recognize that the efforts of developing countries that choose to implement green
economy policies in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication should be
supported through technical and technological assistance.
**IV. Institutional framework for sustainable development**
**A. Strengthening the three dimensions of sustainable development**
75. We underscore the importance of a strengthened institutional framework for sustainable
development which responds coherently and effectively to current and future challenges and
efficiently bridges gaps in the implementation of the sustainable development agenda. The
institutional framework for sustainable development should integrate the three dimensions
of sustainable development in a balanced manner and enhance implementation by, inter alia,
strengthening coherence, coordination, avoiding duplication of efforts and reviewing progress
in implementing sustainable development. We also reaffirm that the framework should be
inclusive, transparent and effective and that it should find common solutions related to global
challenges to sustainable development.
76. We recognize that effective governance at local, sub-national, national, regional and
global levels representing the voices and interests of all is critical for advancing sustainable
development. The strengthening and reform of the institutional framework should not be an
end in itself, but a means to achieve sustainable development. We recognize that an improved
and more effective institutional framework for sustainable development at the international
level should be consistent with Rio Principles, build on Agenda 21, and Johannesburg Plan of
Implementation and its objectives on the institutional framework for sustainable development,
and contribute to the implementation of our commitments in outcomes of UN conferences and
summits in economic, social, environmental and related fields and take into account national
priorities and the development strategies and priorities of developing countries. We therefore
resolve to strengthen the institutional framework for sustainable development, which will,
(a) promote the balanced integration of the three dimensions of sustainable
(b) be based on an action- and result-oriented approach giving due regard to all
relevant cross-cutting issues with the aim to contribute to the implementation of
(c) underscore the importance of interlinkages among key issues and challenges and
the need for a systematic approach to them at all relevant levels;
(d) enhance coherence, reduce fragmentation and overlap and increase effectiveness,
efficiency and transparency, while reinforcing coordination and cooperation;
(e) promote full and effective participation of all countries in decision-making
(f) engage high level political leaders, provide policy guidance, as well as identify
specific actions to promote effective implementation of sustainable development,
including through voluntary sharing of experiences and lessons learned;
(g) promote the science-policy interface through inclusive, evidence-based and
transparent scientific assessments, as well as access to reliable, relevant and timely
data in areas related to the three dimensions of sustainable development, building on
existing mechanisms, as appropriate; in this regard, strengthen participation of all
countries in international sustainable development processes and capacity building
especially for developing countries, including in conducting their own monitoring and
(h) enhance the participation and effective engagement of civil society and other
relevant stakeholders in the relevant international fora and in this regard promote
transparency and broad public participation and partnerships to implement sustainable
(i) promote the review and stocktaking of progress in the implementation of all
sustainable development commitments, including commitments related to means of
**B. Strengthening intergovernmental arrangements for sustainable development**
77. We acknowledge the vital importance of an inclusive, transparent, reformed and
strengthened, and effective multilateral system in order to better address the urgent global
challenges of sustainable development today, recognizing the universality and central role
of the United Nations, and reaffirming our commitment to promote and strengthen the
effectiveness and efficiency of the United Nations system.
78. We underscore the need to strengthen UN system-wide coherence and coordination, while
ensuring appropriate accountability to Member States, by, inter alia, enhancing coherence
in reporting and reinforcing cooperative efforts under existing inter-agency mechanisms
and strategies to advance the integration of the three dimensions of sustainable development
within the United Nations system, including through exchange of information among its
agencies, funds and programmes, and also with the international financial institutions and
other relevant organizations such as the World Trade Organization (WTO), within their
79. We emphasize the need for an improved and more effective institutional framework
for sustainable development that should: be guided by the specific functions required and
mandates involved; address the shortcomings of the current system; take into account all
relevant implications; promote synergies and coherence; seek to avoid duplication and
eliminate unnecessary overlaps within the UN system; and, reduce administrative burdens,
and build on existing arrangements.
80. We reaffirm the role and authority of the General Assembly on global matters of concern
to the international community, as set out in the Charter.
81. We further reaffirm the central position of the General Assembly as the chief deliberative,
policy-making and representative organ of the United Nations. In this regard, we call for
the General Assembly to further integrate sustainable development as a key element of the
overarching framework for United Nations activities and adequately address sustainable
development in its agenda setting, including through periodic high-level dialogues.
**Economic and Social Council**
82. We reaffirm that the Economic and Social Council is a principal body for policy review,
policy dialogue and recommendations on issues of economic and social development and
for the follow-up to the Millennium Development Goals and a central mechanism for the
coordination of the United Nations system and supervision of the Council’s subsidiary bodies,
in particular its functional commissions, and for promoting the implementation of Agenda 21
by strengthening system-wide coherence and coordination. We also reaffirm the major role
the Council plays in the overall coordination of funds, programmes and specialized agencies,
ensuring coherence among them and avoiding duplication of mandates and activities.
83. We commit to strengthen ECOSOC within its Charter mandate, as a principal organ in
the integrated and coordinated follow-up of the outcomes of all major UN Conferences and
summits in the economic, social, environmental and related fields, and recognize its key
role in achieving a balanced integration of the three dimensions of sustainable development.
We look forward to the Review of the Implementation of General Assembly 61/16 on the
Strengthening of ECOSOC.
**High level political forum**
84. We decide to establish a universal intergovernmental high level political forum, building
on the strengths, experiences, resources and inclusive participation modalities of the
Commission on Sustainable Development, and subsequently replacing the Commission. The
high level political forum shall follow up on the implementation of sustainable development
and should avoid overlap with existing structures, bodies and entities in a cost-effective
85. The high level forum could:
(a) provide political leadership, guidance, and recommendations for sustainable
(b) enhance integration of the three dimensions of sustainable development in a
holistic and cross-sectoral manner at all levels;
(c) provide a dynamic platform for regular dialogue, and stocktaking and agenda
setting to advance sustainable development;
(d) have a focused, dynamic and action-oriented agenda, ensuring the appropriate
consideration of new and emerging sustainable development challenges;
(e) follow up and review progress in the implementation of sustainable development
commitments contained in Agenda 21, Johannesburg Plan of Implementation,
Barbados Programme of Action, Mauritius Strategy for Implementation and the
outcome of this Conference and, as appropriate, relevant outcomes of other UN
summits and conferences, including the outcome of the Fourth United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries, as well as their respective means of
(f) encourage high-level system-wide participation of UN Agencies, funds and
programmes and invite to participate, as appropriate, other relevant multilateral
financial and trade institutions, treaty bodies, within their respective mandates and in
accordance with UN rules and provisions;
(g) improve cooperation and coordination within the UN system on sustainable
development programmes and policies;
(h) promote transparency and implementation through further enhancing the
consultative role and participation of Major Groups and other relevant stakeholders at
the international level in order to better make use of their expertise, while retaining the
intergovernmental nature of discussions;
(i) promote the sharing of best practices and experiences relating to the
implementation of sustainable development, and on a voluntary basis, facilitate
sharing of experiences, including successes, challenges, and lessons learnt;
(j) promote system-wide coherence and coordination of sustainable development
(k) strengthen the science-policy interface through review of documentation bringing
together dispersed information and assessments, including in the form of a global
sustainable development report, building on existing assessments;
(l) enhance evidence-based decision-making at all levels and contribute to strengthen
ongoing efforts of capacity building for data collection and analysis in developing
86. We decide to launch an intergovernmental and open, transparent and inclusive
negotiation process under the General Assembly to define the high level forum’s format and
organizational aspects with the aim of convening the first high level forum at the beginning
of the 68th session of the General Assembly. We will also consider the need for promoting
intergenerational solidarity for the achievement of sustainable development, taking into
account the needs of future generations, including by inviting the Secretary General to present
a report on this issue.
**C. Environmental pillar in the context of sustainable development**
87. We reaffirm the need to strengthen international environmental governance within the
context of the institutional framework for sustainable development, in order to promote a
balanced integration of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable
development as well as coordination within the UN system.
88. We are committed to strengthening the role of the United Nations Environment
Programme as the leading global environmental authority that sets the global environmental
agenda, that promotes the coherent implementation of the environmental dimension of
sustainable development within the United Nations system and that serves as an authoritative
advocate for the global environment. We reaffirm resolution 2997 (XXVII) of 15 December
1972 which established UNEP and other relevant resolutions that reinforce its mandate, as
well as the 1997 Nairobi and 2000 Malmö Ministerial Declarations. In this regard, we invite
the United Nations General Assembly, in its 67th Session, to adopt a Resolution strengthening
and upgrading UNEP in the following manner:
(a) Establish universal membership in the Governing Council of UNEP, as well
as other measures to strengthen its governance as well its responsiveness and accountability to Member States;
(b) Have secure, stable, adequate and increased financial resources from the regular
budget of the UN and voluntary contributions to fulfill its mandate;
(c) Enhance UNEP’s voice and ability to fulfill its coordination mandate within the
UN system by strengthening UNEP engagement in key UN coordination bodies and
empowering UNEP to lead efforts to formulate UN system-wide strategies on the
(d) Promote a strong science-policy interface, building on existing international
instruments, assessments, panels and information networks, including the Global
Environmental Outlook, as one of the processes aimed at bringing together
information and assessment to support informed decision-making;
(e) Disseminate and share evidence-based environmental information and raise public
awareness on critical as well as emerging environmental issues;
(f) Provide capacity building to countries as well as support and facilitate access to
(g) Progressively consolidate headquarters functions in Nairobi, as well as strengthen
its regional presence, in order to assist countries, upon request, in the implementation
of their national environmental policies, collaborating closely with other relevant
entities of the UN system;
(h) Ensure the active participation of all relevant stakeholders drawing on best
practices and models from relevant multilateral institutions and exploring new
mechanisms to promote transparency and the effective engagement of civil society.
89. We recognize the significant contributions to sustainable development made by the
multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). We acknowledge the work already
undertaken to enhance synergies among the three Conventions in the chemicals and waste
cluster (the Basel, Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions). We encourage parties to
MEAs to consider further measures, in these and other clusters, as appropriate, to promote
policy coherence at all relevant levels, improve efficiency, reduce unnecessary overlap and
duplication, and enhance coordination and cooperation among MEAs, including the three Rio
Conventions as well as with the UN system in the field.
90. We stress the need for the continuation of a regular review of the state of the Earth’s
changing environment and its impact on human well-being and in this regard, we welcome
such initiatives as the Global Environmental Outlook process aimed at bringing together
environmental information and assessments and building national and regional capacity to
support informed decision making.
**D. International financial institutions and UN operational activities**
91. We recognize that sustainable development should be given due consideration by the
programmes, funds and specialized agencies of the UN system and other relevant entities
such as international financial institutions, and the United Nations Conference on Trade
and Development (UNCTAD), in accordance with their respective existing mandates. In
this regard, we invite them to further enhance mainstreaming of sustainable development in
their respective mandates, programs, strategies and decision-making processes, in support
of all countries in particular developing countries’ efforts in the achievement of sustainable
92. We reaffirm the importance of broadening and strengthening the participation of developing countries in international economic decision-making and norm-setting, and in this
regard, take note of recent important decisions on reform of the governance structures, quotas
and voting rights of the Bretton Woods institutions, better reflecting current realities and
enhancing the voice and participation of developing countries, and reiterates the importance
of the reform of the governance of those institutions in order to deliver more effective,
credible, accountable and legitimate institutions.
93. We call for the further mainstreaming of the three dimensions of sustainable development
throughout the UN System, and request the Secretary-General to report to the General
Assembly through ECOSOC on the progress made in this regard. We also call for and
recognize the importance of the strengthening of policy coordination within key UN
Secretariat structures so as to ensure system-wide coherence in support of sustainable
development, while ensuring accountability to Member States.
94. We invite the governing bodies of the funds, programmes and specialized agencies of
the UN development system to consider appropriate measures for integrating the social,
economic and environmental dimensions across the UN System’s operational activities.
We also emphasize that increasing the financial contributions to the United Nations
development system is key to achieving the internationally agreed development goals,
including the Millennium Development Goals, and in this regard we recognize the mutually
reinforcing links among increased effectiveness, efficiency and coherence of the United
Nations development system, achieving concrete results in assisting developing countries in
eradicating poverty and achieving sustained economic growth and sustainable development.
95. We emphasize the need to strengthen operational activities for development of the UN
system in the field that are well aligned with national sustainable development priorities of
developing countries. In this regard, we emphasize that the fundamental characteristics and
principles of UN operational activities set forth in the relevant General Assembly resolutions
provide the overarching framework for all matters pertaining to the UN development
assistance operations in the field. We recognize the importance of strengthening UN system
coordination. We look forward to receiving the outcome of the independent evaluation of
the “Delivering as One” initiative.
96. We call on the UN system to improve the management of facilities and operations, by
taking into account sustainable development practices, building on existing efforts and
promoting cost effectiveness, and in accordance with legislative frameworks, including
financial rules and regulations, while maintaining accountability to Member States.
**E. Regional, national, sub-national, local**
97. We acknowledge the importance of the regional dimension of sustainable development.
Regional frameworks can complement and facilitate effective translation of sustainable
development policies into concrete action at national level.
98. We encourage regional, national, sub-national and local authorities as appropriate
to develop and utilize sustainable development strategies as key instruments for guiding
decision-making and implementation of sustainable development at all levels, and in
this regard we recognize that integrated social, economic, and environmental data and
information, as well as effective analysis and assessment of implementation, is important to
99. We encourage action at regional, national, sub-national, and local levels to promote
access to information, public participation, and access to justice in environmental matters, as
100. We emphasize that regional and sub-regional organizations, including the UN regional
commissions and their sub-regional offices, have a significant role to play in promoting a
balanced integration of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable
development in their respective regions. We underscore the need to support these institutions,
including through the UN system, in the effective operationalization and implementation
of sustainable development, and to facilitate institutional coherence and harmonization
of relevant development policies, plans and programmes. In this regard, we urge these
institutions to prioritize sustainable development through, inter alia, more efficient and
effective capacity building, development and implementation of regional agreements and
arrangements as appropriate, and exchange of information, best practices, and lessons
learnt. We also welcome regional and cross-regional initiatives for sustainable development.
We furthermore recognize the need to ensure effective linkage among global, regional,
sub-regional and national processes to advance sustainable development. We encourage
the enhancement of the UN regional commissions and their sub-regional offices in their
respective capacities to support Member States in implementing sustainable development.
101. We underline the need for more coherent and integrated planning and decision-making at
the national, sub-national and local levels as appropriate and, to this end, we call on countries
to strengthen national, sub-national and/or local institutions or relevant multi-stakeholder
bodies and processes, as appropriate, dealing with sustainable development, including to
coordinate on matters of sustainable development and to enable effective integration of the
three dimensions of sustainable development.
102. We welcome regional and cross-regional initiatives for sustainable development, such as
the Green Bridge Partnership which is voluntary and open for participation of all partners.
103. We underscore the need to ensure long-term political commitment to sustainable
development taking into account national circumstances and priorities and, in this regard,
we encourage all countries to undertake the necessary actions and measures to achieve
**V. Framework for action and follow-up**
**A. Thematic areas and cross-sectoral issues**
104. We recognize that in order to achieve the objective of the Conference, namely to secure
renewed political commitment for sustainable development, as well as to address the themes
of a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication and the
institutional framework for sustainable development, we commit to address remaining gaps
in the implementation of the outcomes of the major summits on sustainable development,
to address new and emerging challenges and to seize new opportunities through the actions
enumerated below in this framework for action supported as appropriate through provision of
means of implementation. We recognize that goals, targets and indicators, including where
appropriate gender-sensitive indicators, are valuable in measuring and accelerating progress.
We further note that progress with implementation of the actions stipulated below can be
enhanced by voluntarily sharing information, knowledge and experience.
105. We recognize that, three years from the 2015 target date of the MDGs, while there has
been progress in reducing poverty in some regions, this progress has been uneven and the
number of people living in poverty in some countries continues to increase, with women and
children constituting the majority of the most affected groups, especially in least developed
countries and particularly in Africa.
106. We recognize that sustained, inclusive and equitable economic growth in developing
countries is a key requirement for eradicating poverty and hunger and achieving the
MDGs. In this regard, we emphasize that national efforts of developing countries should be
complemented by an enabling environment aimed at expanding development opportunities
of developing countries. We also emphasize the need to accord the highest priority to poverty
eradication within the United Nations development agenda, addressing the root causes and
challenges of poverty through integrated, coordinated and coherent strategies at all levels.
107. We recognize that promoting universal access to social services can make an important
contribution to consolidating and achieving development gains. Social protection systems that
address and reduce inequality and social exclusion are essential for eradicating poverty and
advancing the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. In this regard, we strongly
encourage initiatives aimed at enhancing social protection for all people.
**Food security and nutrition and sustainable agriculture**
108. We reaffirm our commitments regarding the right of everyone to have access to safe,
sufficient and nutritious food, consistent with the right to adequate food and the fundamental
right of everyone to be free from hunger. We acknowledge that food security and nutrition has
become a pressing global challenge and, in this regard, we further reaffirm our commitment
to enhancing food security and access to adequate, safe and nutritious food for present and
future generations in line with the Rome Principles adopted in 2009, including children under
two, and through, as appropriate, national, regional and global food security and nutrition
109. We recognize that a significant portion of the world’s poor live in rural areas, and that
rural communities play an important role in the economic development of many countries.
We emphasize the need to revitalize the agricultural and rural development sectors, notably in
developing countries, in an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable manner.
We recognize the importance to take the necessary actions to better address the needs of 1