God, What a Future!
In 2050, world energy demand will be 80% higher; urban air pollution is set to become the top environmental cause of mortality worldwide; global biodiversity is projected to decline by a further 10%; global water demand will increase by some 55%, and 2.3 billion more people than today –over 40% of the global population – will be living in river basins under severe water stress.
These are some of the projections announced by the [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development](http://www.oecd.org/home/0,2987,en_2649_201185_1_1_1_1_1,00.html) (OECD), which groups 34 industrialised countries spanning the globe, from North and South America to Europe and the Asia-Pacific region.
In fact, the OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050: [The Consequences of Inaction](http://www.oecd.org/document/11/0,3746,en_2649_37465_49036555_1_1_1_37465,00.html), presents the latest projections of [socio-economic trends](http://www.oecd.org/document/30/0,3746,en_2649_37465_49778782_1_1_1_37465,00.html) over the next four decades, and their implications for four key areas of concern: climate change, biodiversity, water and the [health](http://www.oecd.org/document/46/0,3746,en_2649_37465_49742254_1_1_1_37465,00.html) impacts of environmental pollution.
Stressing the urgent need for new thinking, it says “Failing that, the erosion of our environmental capital will increase the risk of irreversible changes that could jeopardise two centuries of rising living standards.”
**Greening Is Critical**
In this regards, the OECD said on 15 March, “As countries struggle with the immediate challenges of stretched public finances and high unemployment, they must not neglect the longer term. Action needs to be taken now to prevent irreversible damage to the environment.”
“Greener sources of growth can help governments today as they tackle these pressing challenges. Greening agriculture, water and energy supply and manufacturing will be critical by 2050 to meet the needs of over 9 billion people.” said OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría.
The OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050 presents the latest projections of socio-economic trends over the next four decades, and their implications for four key areas of concern: climate change, biodiversity, water and the health impacts of environmental pollution.
Despite the recent recession, the global economy is projected to nearly quadruple to 2050, it says.
“Rising living standards will be accompanied by ever growing demands for energy, food and natural resources – and more pollution.”
**The Colossal Costs of Inaction**
According to the Outlook, the costs of inaction could be “colossal,” both in economic and human terms. Without new policies:
**World energy demand** in 2050 will be 80% higher, with most of the growth to come from emerging economies (for North America about +15%, for OECD Europe +28%, for Japan +2.5, for Mexico +112%) and still 85% reliant on fossil fuel-based energy.
This could lead to a 50% increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally and worsening air pollution.
**Urban air pollution** is set to become the top environmental cause of mortality worldwide by 2050, ahead of dirty water and lack of sanitation.
The number of premature deaths from exposure to particulate air pollutants leading to respiratory failure could double from current levels to 3.6 million every year globally, with most occurring in China and India.
Because of their ageing and urbanised populations, OECD countries are likely to have one of the highest rate of premature death from ground-level ozone in 2050, second only to India.
On land, **global biodiversity** is projected to decline by a further 10%, with significant losses in Asia, Europe and Southern Africa. Areas of mature forests are projected to shrink by 13%. About one-third of biodiversity in rivers and lakes worldwide has already been lost, and further losses are projected to 2050.
**Global water demand** will increase by some 55%, due to growing demand from manufacturing (+400%), thermal power plants (+140%) and domestic use (+130%).
These competing demands will put water use by farmers at risk.
And 2.3 billion more people than today –over 40% of the global population – will be living in river basins under severe water stress, especially in North and South Africa, and South and Central Asia, according to OECD.
**Overfishing, Food and Energy Security, Poverty Alleviation…**
“We have already witnessed the collapse of some fisheries due to overfishing, with significant impacts on coastal communities, and severe water shortages are a looming threat to agriculture,” Gurría said.
“These enormous environmental challenges cannot be addressed in isolation. They must be managed in the context of other global challenges, such as food and energy security, and poverty alleviation,” he added.
Well-designed policies to tackle environmental problems can also help to address other environmental challenges, and contribute to growth and development, according to OECD.
Tackling local air pollution contributes not only to cutting GHG emissions but also to reducing the economic burden of chronic and costly health problems. Moreover, climate policies help protect biodiversity, for example by reducing emissions from deforestation.
**A Cocktail of Solutions**
To avert the grim future painted by the Environmental Outlook to 2050, the report recommends a cocktail of policy solutions.
These are: using environmental taxes and emissions trading schemes to make pollution more costly than greener alternatives; valuing and pricing natural assets and ecosystem services like clean air, water and biodiversity for their true worth.
The other solutions include removing environmentally harmful subsidies to fossil fuels or wasteful irrigation schemes; and encouraging green innovation by making polluting production and consumption modes more expensive while providing public support for basic Research and Development (R&D).
Read the [key facts and figures](http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/25/39/49910023.pdf) from the Environmental Outlook to 2050.
2012 [Human Wrongs Watch](http://human-wrongs-watch.net/2012/04/06/god-what-a-future/)